Sudan

   A largely desert country to the south of Egypt, extending along the Nile from the second cataract in the north to Uganda in the south, and encompassing large tracts of desert on either side. It is inhabited by Islamic and ethnically Arab peoples in the north, but by black Africans in the south. Originally animist, many of the latter were converted to Christianity by Western missionaries in the nineteenth century. Slavery, largely practiced by the Islamic population at the expense of the equatorial Africans, was a consistent feature of Sudanese life and also provided both a motivation and a pretext for imperial intervention.
   Although the Nile - its source uncertain for much of the nineteenth century -does not begin in the Sudan, it ensured that those with interests in Egypt thought of the Sudan as a strategic territory, providing a further motive for imperial interest. Long claimed by the rulers of Egypt, the nineteenth century saw a succession of largely unsuccessful Egyptian expeditions into the Sudan, and these drew in European opportunists and evangelists, many in the Egyptian service. General Charles Gordon was made governor-general of the Sudan, under claimed Egyptian suzerainty, in 1873, where he conscientiously tried to abolish slavery. The British occupation of Egypt in 1882 caused Britain to inherit Egypt’s troubles to the south. An uprising by a self-proclaimed Mahdi led to bloody defeats for the British- officered Egyptian army, and to a call in London to do something. In response, Gordon was sent back to arrange a withdrawal. Gordon decided on his own initiative to stay instead, and his 1885 death at the hands of the Mahdi’s forces made him a martyr in the eyes of much British opinion.
   The subject remained dormant until the Italian defeat at Adowa in 1896 raised the specter of an Islamic empire in east Africa. The government of Lord Salisbury resolved to send an expedition to avenge Gordon. It proceeded deliberately up the Nile under the leadership of General Herbert Kitchener, capturing Khartoum after the battle of Omdurman in 1898. Notwithstanding plans to develop a cotton industry, the Sudan remained henceforth a backwater of empire. Formally under the joint rule of Egypt and Britain, a fiction that was increasingly a source of anger to Egyptian nationalists, the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan became independent in 1956.
   See also <>; <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Holt, P. M. The Mahdist State in Sudan, 1881–1898. Oxford: Clarendon, 1958;
    Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa. New York: Random House, 1991.
   MARK F. PROUDMAN

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Sudan 1 — Sudan® Farbstoffe sind synthetisch hergestellte Farbstoffe, wobei es sich bei den gelben, orangen und roten Typen um Azofarbstoffe, bei den blauen um Anthrachinonfarbstoffe und bei den grünen um Mischungen aus Azo und Anthrachinonfarbstoffen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sudan IV — Sudan® Farbstoffe sind synthetisch hergestellte Farbstoffe, wobei es sich bei den gelben, orangen und roten Typen um Azofarbstoffe, bei den blauen um Anthrachinonfarbstoffe und bei den grünen um Mischungen aus Azo und Anthrachinonfarbstoffen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sudan I — IUPAC name 1 phenylazonaphth 2 ol Identifiers …   Wikipedia

  • Sudan IV — Other names Sudan R, C.I. Solvent Red 24, C.I. 26105, Lipid Crimson, Oil Red, Oil Red BB, Fat Red B, Oil Red IV, Scarlet Red, Scarlet Red N.F, Scarlet Red Scharlach …   Wikipedia

  • Sudan TV — Création 1962 Langue Arabe, anglais Pays   …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sudan — Sudan, TX U.S. city in Texas Population (2000): 1039 Housing Units (2000): 460 Land area (2000): 0.907197 sq. miles (2.349629 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.907197 sq. miles (2.349629 sq. km)… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Sudan, TX — U.S. city in Texas Population (2000): 1039 Housing Units (2000): 460 Land area (2000): 0.907197 sq. miles (2.349629 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.907197 sq. miles (2.349629 sq. km) FIPS code …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Sudân — (Beled es S., »Land der Schwarzen«, Nigritien), der Teil des Binnenlandes von Nordafrika (s. Karten »Ägypten« und »Guinea«), der vom 5.° nördl. Br. im W. bis zum 14.°, im O. bis zum 22.° nördl. Br. reicht, zwischen Sahara, Libyscher und Nubischer …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Sudan — • The Vicariate Apostolic of Sudan or Central Africa Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Sudan — 1842, from Arabic Bilad al sudan, lit. country of the blacks, from sud, pl. of aswad (fem. sauda) black …   Etymology dictionary

  • Sudan — [so͞o dan′, so͞odän′] 1. vast semiarid region in NC Africa, south of the Sahara, extending from the Atlantic to the Red Sea 2. country in the E part of this region, south of Egypt: formerly a British & Egyptian condominium called ANGLO EGYPTIAN… …   English World dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.