San Martín, José Francisco de

   The general who led armies of liberation in Argentina, Chile, and Peru during the concluding phases of the Wars of Independence in Spanish America. San Martín was born in Corrientes to Spanish parents who supervised his education in Spain. He entered the Spanish military and served in three campaigns between 1789 and 1793 and was active in secret societies that supported liberal reforms and the independence of the American colonies during and after his resignation from the Spanish military in 1811.
   While in London, through his membership in the Great American Assembly of Francisco Miranda, he met a number of Latin American independence leaders, including Manuel Moreno - the brother of Mariano Moreno - and Carlos de Alvear. In 1812, San Martín traveled to Buenos Aires, where he offered his services to the newly formed government of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. He became active in politics in Buenos Aires. In 1813, after winning victories against Loyalist forces on two occasions, the ruling junta named him as the commander of the expeditionary force then engaged in fighting Spanish forces on the frontier between Argentina and Bolivia. Hoping that an indirect attack would yield better results, San Martín pushed for the recruitment and training of an army between 1814 and 1817 that crossed the Andes and invaded Chile. A series of engagements in alliance with Chilean independence forces against the Spanish defenders led to the liberation of Chile by 1818.
   With support from the governments in Buenos Aires and in Santiago de Chile, he led an invasion force against the Spanish in Peru beginning in 1820. Although the Royalist forces were significantly larger than the invading forces, the ensuing campaign produced a string of victories that quickly forced Spanish and loyalist troops from Peru. On July 28, 1821, a council in Lima declared their country independent.
   San Martín had hoped to unite Argentina, Chile, and Peru - if not all of South America - into a single nation. Although his exact plans remain unknown, contemporaries believed that he hoped to help create a constitutional monarchy and a federation of states.
   As the battle to liberate Ecuador and Bolivia continued, San Martín met with Simón de Bolívar on July 25, 1822, in Guayaquil. No record of their discussion appeared and what their discussion covered remains unknown. After a series of meetings, San Martín returned to Lima, where he resigned his commission and titles granted by the Peruvian government. He returned to Argentina, but he retired from politics and military affairs. After meeting briefly with government officials, he departed for England in 1824. Although he resided briefly in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1828, and he offered to help the dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas lift an attempted French blockade of Buenos Aires in 1838, he remained for the rest of his life in Europe.
   See also <>.
    Lynch, John. Spanish American Revolutions 1808–1826 . New York: W. W. Norton, 1986;
    Mitre, Bartolomé. The Emancipation of South America . Being a condensed translation by William Pilling of the History of San Martin by Bartolomé Mitre . New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1969.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • José de San Martín — Para la localidad homónima de la provincia de Chubut, véase José de San Martín (Chubut). «General San Martín» redirige aquí. Para otras acepciones, véase General San Martín (desambiguación). José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras …   Wikipedia Español

  • Jose de San Martin — José de San Martín José de San Martín Naissance 25 février 1778 Yapeyú Décès 17 août 1850 Boul …   Wikipédia en Français

  • José de San Martín — General San Martín redirects here. For the Hamburg Süd ocean liner, see SS General San Martin. General Don José de San Martín 1st President of Peru …   Wikipedia

  • José de San Martín — Mandats Fondateur de la Liberté du Pérou, Fondateur de la République, Protecteur du Pérou et Généralissime 20 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • San Martín de Hidalgo — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Municipio de San Martín de Hidalgo Escudo …   Wikipedia Español

  • José María San Martín y Ulloa — kurz José María San Martín (* 29. März 1811 in Nacaome (Honduras); † 12. August 1857 in Chalatenango (El Salvador)) war 1852 und vom 15. Februar 1854 bis 1. Februar 1856 Präsident in El Salvador. Leben Er war der Sohn von Joaquín de San Martín y… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • José María San Martín — (* Nacaome (Honduras); 29 de marzo de 1811 – † Chalatenango (El Salvador); 12 de agosto de 1857) fue un político centroamericano, Ministro de Hacienda y Guerra (1846 1847;1856) y Presidente de El Salvador, (1852) (1854 1856).[1] Nació en el seno… …   Wikipedia Español

  • José Francisco Morazán Quezada — Francisco Morazán General José Francisco Morazán Quezada (* 3. Oktober 1792 in Tegucigalpa; † 15. September 1842 in San José) war ein zentralamerikanischer Präsident. Francisco Morazán war der bedeutendste und zugleich umstrittenste… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • José Francisco de San Martín y Carredas — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Jose de San Martín y Carredas es conocido como San Martín el continuo con lo que habia empezado belgrano luchando y luchando por la epoca de el 1800. tuvo participacion en la Logia Lautaro El objetivo de esta logia… …   Wikipedia Español

  • San Martín del Río — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda San Martín del Río Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.