Beijing, Conventions of

(1860)
   The capstone of the “treaty system“ imposed on China by the British Empire. After the dreadful defeat of the Arrow War, the Chinese government was forced to enter the Conventions of Beijing with Britain and France. On October 24, 1860, China signed the Convention of “Peace and Friendship” with Britain in Beijing, and with France the next day. Following the advice of the Russian negotiator, Nikolay Ignatyev, who acted as mediator in securing the evacuation of the invaders from Beijing, Prince Gong exchanged ratification of the Tianjin Treaties of 1858, increased the Chinese indemnities to Britain and France, and added other concessions, including the Kowloon Peninsula in southern China to Britain, and the French demand for Catholic missions to hold property in the interior China. China also agreed to grant foreign powers to station diplomats in Beijing.
   Tianjin was opened as a treaty port, and the opium importation was legalized. As the American and Russian negotiators had already exchanged the ratification of Tianjin Treaties in 1859, the 1858–1860 treaties extended the foreign privileges granted after the first Opium War and strengthened the developments in the treaty-port system. The Conventions of Beijing further opened the Qing Dynasty to Western contact. Not only was the Chinese imperial court forced to further concede its territorial and sovereignty rights, but more importantly the dominant Confucian values of the Chinese feudal society were seriously challenged. The right to disseminate Christianity threatened the backbone of the dynastic rule, and the permanent residence of foreign diplomats in Beijing signified an end to the long-established tributary relationship between China and other countries. As a reward for Russian’s mediatory work, the Sino-Russian Treaty of Beijing was also reached, which confirmed the Treaty of Aigun and ceded to Russia the territory between the Ussuri River and the sea. In brief, the Conventions of Beijing enlarged the scope of the foreign privileges that British initially obtained, and the Chinese Empire skidded further down a disastrous path to its semicolonial status during the late nineteenth century.
   See also <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Wong, J. Y. Deadly Dreams: Opium, Imperialism, and the Arrow War in China New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
   WENXIAN ZHANG

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Beijing opera — or Peking opera (zh stp|s=京剧|t=京劇|p=Jīngjù) is a form of traditional Chinese theatre which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics. It arose in the late 18th century and became fully developed and recognized by the mid 19th… …   Wikipedia

  • China — This article is about the People s Republic of China. For the state commonly known as Taiwan, see the Republic of China. For other uses, see China (disambiguation). PRC redirects here. For other uses, see PRC (disambiguation). People …   Wikipedia

  • religion — religionless, adj. /ri lij euhn/, n. 1. a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, esp. when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and… …   Universalium

  • Peking opera — The female Peking opera performer Shi Yihong[1] (original name Shi Min) creating the role of concubine Yang Yuhuan in the modern Peking opera Da Tang Guifei …   Wikipedia

  • literature — /lit euhr euh cheuhr, choor , li treuh /, n. 1. writings in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, novels, history, biography, and essays. 2.… …   Universalium

  • performing arts — arts or skills that require public performance, as acting, singing, or dancing. [1945 50] * * * ▪ 2009 Introduction Music Classical.       The last vestiges of the Cold War seemed to thaw for a moment on Feb. 26, 2008, when the unfamiliar strains …   Universalium

  • Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China — Diplomatic relations between world states and People s Republic of China   People s Republic of China …   Wikipedia

  • Cosplay — Part of a series on Anime and Manga …   Wikipedia

  • 2004 Summer Olympics — Games of the XXVIII Olympiad Host city Athens, Greece Motto Welcome Home Nations participating 201 …   Wikipedia

  • Law, Crime, and Law Enforcement — ▪ 2006 Introduction Trials of former heads of state, U.S. Supreme Court rulings on eminent domain and the death penalty, and high profile cases against former executives of large corporations were leading legal and criminal issues in 2005.… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.