About the editor
 and contributors
 Editor
 Carl Cavanagh Hodge is an associate professor of political science at the University of British Columbia-Okanagan. His is a former Senior Volkswagen Research Fellow with the American Institute of Contemporary German Studies at the Johns Hopkins University and a former NATO-EAPC fellow. His books include Atlanticism for a New Century: The Rise, Triumph and Decline of NATO (Prentice-Hall, 2004); Politics in North America: Canada, Mexico and the United States, with Robert J. Jackson, Gregory Mahler, and Holly Reynolds (Prentice-Hall, 2003); NATO for a New Century: Expansion and Intervention in the Atlantic Alliance (Praeger, 2002); Redefining European Security (Garland, 1999); All of the People, All of the Time: American Government at the End of the Century (Peter Lang, 1998); The Trammels of Tradition: Social Democracy in Britain, France, and Germany (Greenwood,1994); Shepherd of Democracy? America and Germany in the Twentieth Century, co-edited with Cathal J. Nolan (Greenwood, 1992).
 Contributors
 Joseph Adamczyk is an independent scholar.
 Scott Anderson is a doctoral candidate in history at the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London.
 Adrian U-jin Ang is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Political Science at the University of Missouri-Columbia.
 Scott C. Bailey is a doctoral candidate in history at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. His doctoral dissertation is tentatively titled, “Russian Scientific, Ethnographic, and Geographic Travel to Central Eurasia for the Benefit of Empire, 1856–1905.” He is currently preparing doctoral fields in world history, Central Eurasian history, Russian/Soviet history, and Islamic history. He received a bachelor’s degree in history from East Tennessee State University and his master’s degree in history from Murray State University.
 Gábor Berczeli is assistant professor of British and American history at Kodolányi János University College, Hungary. His research interests include the history of the British Empire in Africa and U.S. naval history from the Spanish-American War to World War I on which he has published several journal articles.
 Volker R. Berghahn is Seth Low Professor of History at Columbia University. He specializes in modern German history and European-American relations. He received his MAfrom the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, in 1961 and his PhD from the University of London in 1964. He taught in England and Germany before coming to Brown University in 1988 and to Columbia 10 years later. His publications include Der Untergang des alten Europas, 1900-1929 (1999), Quest for Economic Empire, ed. (1996), Imperial Germany (1995), The Americanization of West German Industry, 19451973 (1986), Modern Germany (1982), and Der Tirpitz-Plan (1971). His America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe appeared in 2001.
 Kenneth J. Blume is a professor of history in the Department of Arts and Sciences of Albany College of Pharmacy. He holds a PhD from SUNY-Binghamton, and his research explores various aspects of nineteenth-century American diplomatic, maritime, and naval history. He is the author of the Historical Dictionary of U.S. Diplomacy from the Civil War to World War I (2005), the Historical Dictionary of U.S. Maritime Industry (2007), and Advancing American Seapower: The Story of Richard W. Meade III (1837-1897) (2007). He is currently working on studies of the Naval Efficiency Boards of 1855–1857 and African-American diplomats between the Civil War and World War I. David M. Carletta is a doctoral candidate in Latin American history at Michigan State University.
 John Connor is a senior historian at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, where he is writing a volume of the Official History of Australian Peacekeeping and Post-Cold War Operations. He has taught Australian history at the Menzies Centre for Australian Studies, King’s College, London. His book, The Australian Frontier Wars, 1788-1838, received a Special Mention in the 2002 Centre for Australian Cultural Studies National Awards, was short-listed for the Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies’ 2003 Westminster Medal for Military Literature, and was highly commended in the Australian Historical Association’s 2004 W. K. Hancock Prize.
 Robert Davis is a doctoral candidate in modern British Empire and European diplomatic history at Ohio University. He completed a BA in history at the University of Kansas in 1998 and accepted a Masters fellowship at Ohio University’s Contemporary History Institute. He spent 2005–2006 in Oslo on a Fulbright Fellowship, where he was hosted by the Contemporary History Forum at the University of Oslo and the Norwegian Institute for Defense Studies. He is currently researching NATO during the period 1956–1975 and plans to write a book on railway imperialism and the ethos of the engineers who helped build the infrastructure of the British Empire.
 Frederick R. Dickinson is an associate professor of Japanese history at the University of Pennsylvania. He received master’s and doctoral degrees in history from Yale University and also holds a master’s degree in international politics from Kyoto University. He is author of War and National Reinvention: Japan and the Great War, 1914-1919, published by Harvard University Press in 1999.
 Frederick H. Dotolo finished a doctorate in modern European history at the State University of New York at Buffalo in 2001, and promptly left the country. He was spotted on various U.S. Navy vessels in the Pacific and Atlantic teaching for the NCPACE (Navy College Program Afloat for College Education) Program. It was even rumored that Dr. Dotolo got caught in a combat zone while happily teaching a course on American diplomatic history. Dr. Dotolo’s dissertation was on Italian foreign policy in the Balkans in the 1920s. His research interests include the relationship between totalitarian ideology and its origins within the French Revolution, the impact of Italian fascism on the conduct of diplomacy, and the conduct of non-German Axis forces during World War II.
 David M. Fahey is a professor of history at Miami University. He received his PhD from the University of Notre Dame in 1964. He specializes in modern Britain, temperance in Britain and America, theories in world and comparative history, and Anglo-American social movements. He has published on nineteenth-century temperance and fraternal societies in Britain and the Americas. His most recent monograph is Temperance & Racism: John Bull, Johnny Reb, and the Good Templars. He is co-editor of the international encyclopedia, Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History. Formerly president of the Alcohol and Temperance History Group (ATHG), he currently is a member of the executive council of its successor organization, the Alcohol and Drugs History Society (ADHS). For more than 10 years, he moderated the ADHS and ATHG listserv groups on the Internet. He served as editor-in-chief of the first two volumes of the Social History of Alcohol and Drugs: An Interdisciplinary Journal. He also is one of the creators of Miami’s graduate field in world and comparative history. He was a list editor for H-World and H-Teach. He also has published about African American fraternal lodges.
 Lee A. Farrow is an associate professor at Auburn University Montgomery in Alabama and is the author of Between Clan and Crown: The Struggle to Define Noble Property Rights in Imperial Russia (University of Delaware Press, 2004). Her current book project is on the U.S./Canadian visit of Russian Grand Duke Alexis in 1871–1872, about which she has published two articles: “Grand Duke Alexis in Memphis and the Reconstruction of Southern Identity During Reconstruction” in the West Tennessee Historical Society Papers, vol. 59 (2005), and “Grand Duke Alexei and the Origins of Rex, 1872: Myth, Public Memory and the Distortion of History” in the Gulf South Historical Review, vol. 18, no. 1 (Fall 2002).
 Gregory Fremont-Barnes holds a doctorate in modern history from the University of Oxford. An independent historian, he has written numerous books on eighteenth- and nineteenth-century military and naval history, particularly of the Napoleonic era. He is also editor of the three-volume Encyclopedia of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and co-editor of the five-volume Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War.
 Jonathan Gantt is a visiting assistant professor of history at Columbia College in Columbia, South Carolina. His research interests include United States foreign relations, American-European transnational exchanges, modern imperialism, and international terrorism. His article “Irish-American Terrorism and Anglo-American Relations, 1881–1885” was published in the October 2006 issue of the Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era.
 Andrew A. Gentes earned his PhDin history from Brown University and is currently lecturer in Russian and European history at the University of Queensland, Australia. He researches pre-Soviet Siberian exile and his articles have appeared in Sibirica, Ab Imperio, Journal of Asian History, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, and elsewhere. His forthcoming book is entitled Exile to Siberia, 1590-1822: Corporeal Commodification and Administrative Systematization in Russia (Palgrave).
 Gene C. Gerard earned a master’s degree in European religious history from the University of Oklahoma in 1992. Since then he has held 14 teaching positions at various colleges and universities in the Southwest. He is currently an adjunct instructor in history at Tarrant County College in Arlington, Texas. He has contributed to eight books and published numerous articles in both American and international publications.
 Mohammad Gharipour is a visiting lecturer with the Southern Polytechnic State University, a doctoral candidate at the Georgia Institute of Technology, and an expert on Islamic and Japanese architecture and history of garden design. He has written more than 40 encyclopedia entries and book articles.
 Daniel Gorman is a post-doctoral fellow in the Department of History at York University, and has taught at Trent University. His PhD is from McMaster University. He has published on imperial and global history in The Historian, The Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, Personal Perspectives: World War I (ABC-CLIO), and Personal Perspectives: World War II (ABC-CLIO). He is currently working on a book on ideas of internationalism in the 1920s.
 Jonathan Grant is associate professor of Russian history at Florida State University. His monographs include Rulers, Guns, and Money, The Global Arms Trade in the Age of Imperialism (Harvard University Press, 2007) and Big Business in Russia, The Putilov Company in Late Imperial Russia (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999). In addition, he has published articles on the Ottoman Empire in The Journal of Military History and the Journal of World History.
 John Faithful Hamer teaches philosophy at John Abbott College of Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue in Montreal.
 David Hollins is an independent historian. He has published seven books on the Austrian Army of the Napoleonic Wars, including a book on the Marengo campaign.
 Arthur Holst received his PhD in political science from Temple University. He is Government Affairs Manager for the City of Philadelphia and teaches in the MPA Program at Widener University. He has written extensively on politics, public administration, and history and the environment.
 Daniel C. Kane is a doctoral candidate in Korean history at the University of Hawaii–Manoa. Along with working on his dissertation, he is currently collaborating on a translation of a twelfth-century Korean history for the Academy of Korean Studies in Seoul, Korea.
 Guenther Kronenbitter is DAAD Professor of History at Emory University, Atlanta. His fields of research include political ideas and the Vienna System, Austria- Hungary, and the origins of World War I. His major publications are Wort und Macht: Friedrich Gentz als politischer Schriftsteller (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1994); ed., Friedrich Gentz: Gesammelte Schriften, 12 vols. (Hildesheim: Olms-Weidmann, 1997–2004); and “ Krieg im Frieden ” : Die Führung der k.u.k. Armee und die Großmachtpolitik Österreich-Ungarns, 1906-1914 (Munich: Oldenbourg, 2003).
 Paul Lawrence is senior lecturer in history at The Open University and has conducted research in the fields of nationalism and historiography and crime and policing. His major publications include Nationalism: History and Theory (Longman, 2005) and (with Barry Godfrey) Crime and Justice, 1750-1950 (Willan, 2006).
 Daniel K. Lewis is chair of the History Department at California State Polytechnic University in Pomona, California. He is author of The History of Argentina (Palgrave, 2003) and A South American Frontier: The Tri-Border Region (Chelsea House Press, 2006).
 Frode Lindgjerdet is an intern at the Royal Norwegian Air War College and a freelance abstractor for ABC-Clio’s Historical Abstracts and America History and Life. He is a contributor to encyclopedias on NATO and the Cold War and has also published several articles on military history and security policy.
 Roger D. Long is a professor of history in the Department of History and Philosophy at Eastern Michigan University. He teaches the history of England, Canada, British Empire, and Southeast Asia. His research specialization is India. He has edited “ The Man on the Spot ” : Essays on British Empire History (1995); The Founding of Pakistan: An Annotated Bibliography (1998); Charisma and Commitment in South Asian History: Essays Presented to Stanley Wolpert (2003); and “ Dear Mr Jinnah”: Selected Correspondence and Speeches of Liaquat Ali Khan, 1937-1947 (2004). He is the author of a forthcoming biography of Liaquat Ali Khan.
 J. David Markham is an internationally acclaimed historian and Napoleonic scholar. His major books include Napoleon ’ s Road to Glory: Triumphs, Defeats and Immortality (winner of the 2004 Napoleonic Society of America Literary Award), Imperial Glory: The Bulletins of Napoleon ’ s Grande Armée (winner of the International Napoleonic Society’s 2003 Presidents Choice Award), and Napoleon for Dummies and Napoleon and Dr Verling on St Helena. He has been featured on the History Channel International’s Global View program on Napoleon, the History Channel’s Conquerors program (Napoleon’s Greatest Victory; Caesar in Gaul), and Napoleon: The Man Who Would Conquer Europe, as well as in programs on the Learning and Discovery channels. He has served as historical consultant to History Channel and National Geographic Society programs. Markham has contributed to four important reference encyclopedias, Leadership; World History; American Revolution; French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He serves as the president of the Napoleonic Alliance and executive vice-president and editor-in-chief of the International Napoleonic Society. He has also organized International Napoleonic Congresses in Italy, Israel, the Republic of Georgia, and France. He was the first American scholar to present a paper at the Borodino Conference in Russia. His awards include the Legion of Merit from the International Napoleonic Society, the President’s Medal from the Napoleonic Alliance, and the Marengo Medal from the province of Alessandria, Italy.
 Eric Martone is a teacher at John F. Kennedy High School in Waterbury, Connecticut. He holds an MA in global history from Iona College and an MA in European history from Western Connecticut State University. He has written numerous articles on European and global history and has served as associate editor for Facts on File’s forthcoming Encyclopedia of Protest and Revolution in World History.
 Barbara J. Messamore is an instructor in Canadian history at University College of the Fraser Valley. She has a special interest in constitutional history. Her most recent publication is Canada ’ s Governors General, 1847-1878: Biography and Constitutional Evolution (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006).
 Patit Paban Mishra is professor of history at Sambalpur University, India, where he specializes in world history, with particular reference to South Asian and South-East Asian history. He obtained his MA in history at Delhi University, and his M.Phil. (1974) and PhD (1979) at JNU New Delhi in the Centre for South, Southeast and Central Asian Studies. In 1998, Professor Mishra was awarded the D.Litt degree from Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata. He has taught history for almost 30 years and supervised M.Phil., PhD, and D.Litt. scholars. He is the author of more than 30 research articles and has written about 300 articles in more than 30 encyclopedias.
 Martin Moll is professor of modern and contemporary history in the Department for History at Graz University, where he has taught since 2003. His areas of expertise are the two World Wars and the last decades of Austria-Hungary. His noteworthy publications include Kein Burgfrieden. Der deutsch-slowenische Nationalitätenkonflikt in der Steiermark 1900-1918 (Innsbruck 2007); “ Führer-Erlasse1939-1945 (Stuttgart 1997); and, together with Filip Èuèek, Duhovniki za rešetkami/Priester hinter Gittern. Die Berichte der im Sommer 1914 in der Untersteiermark verhafteten Geistlichen an ihren Bischof (Ljubljana 2006).
 Annika Mombauer is a senior lecturer in modern European history at The Open University, in Milton Keynes, United Kingdom. She studied history at the Westfälische-Wilhelms-Universität in Münster, Germany, and at the University of Sussex, where she was awarded a doctorate in history in 1998. Her research interests are in twentieth-century German history, in particular the origins of World War I and the history of post-1945 Germany. Her publications include Helmuth von Moltke and the Origins of the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2001); The Origins of the First World War. Controversies and Consensus (Longman, 2002); and, as editor with Wilhelm Deist, The Kaiser. New Research on Wilhelm.
 David H. Olivier is assistant professor of history and contemporary studies at Wilfrid Laurier University. His area of expertise is the German navy in the nineteenth century. He is the author if German Naval Strategy, 1856-1888: Forerunners of Tirpitz (Frank Cass, 2004).
 Kenneth J. Orosz is associate professor of history at the University of Maine at Farmington. In 1995, he received a Fulbright grant for dissertation research in Germany. His research interests include language policy, missionary work, and education in colonial Africa.
 Niels P. Petersson is a lecturer in history at the University of Konstanz. He has worked on the history of imperialism, the world economy, European integration, and globalization. His publications include Modernisierung und Imperialismus: Siam, China und die europäischen Mächte, 1895-1914 (Munich: Oldenbourg 2000); Globalization: A Short History (with Jürgen Osterhammel; Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005); Von der Volkssouveränität zur Völkersouveränität: Legitimationsgrundlagen einer europäischen Verfassung (with Georg Jochum, Wolfgang M. Schröder, and Katrin Ullrich; Berlin: Duncker & Humblot 2007).
 Mark F. Proudman is a historical writer who is currently preparing for publication a thesis on Victorian anti-imperialism. He is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of the Historical Society and holds a doctorate from the University of Oxford. James Pruitt is a doctoral candidate in American military and diplomatic history at Texas A&M University.
 Serge Ricard is professor of American Studies and U.S. History at the Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris. He was educated at Davidson College in North Carolina and at the Sorbonne in Paris, and was twice a Fulbright research scholar and many times a visiting scholar at Harvard University. He has taught at the universities of Aix-Marseille and Montpellier, France, and was twice an exchange professor at the University of Texas at Austin. He has published extensively on Theodore Roosevelt, American expansionism and foreign policy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and Mexican-American culture. He is the editor or co-editor of numerous books and the author, notably, of Theodore Roosevelt: principes et pratique d ’ une politique étrangère (1991), The Mass Media in America: An Overview (1998), and TheManifest Destinyof the United States in the 19th Century (1999).
 J. Simon Rofe is lecturer in defence studies in the Defence Studies Department of the War Studies Group of King’s College, London. He teaches international military of-ficers at the Joint Services Command and Staff College within the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom. His research lies in the field of American foreign policy in the twentieth century, with a specific focus on the diplomacy of Franklin Roosevelt, the nature of the Anglo-American relationship, and competing visions of peacemaking and postwar planning. A volume entitled ‘ Once Chance in a Thousand ’ : The Sumner Welles Mission to Europe, Rooseveltian Diplomacy and Anglo-American Relations during the Phoney War, is currently under review with Palgrave. He has published a number of works on the Roosevelt era and more contemporary issues while contributing to a number of refereed journals such as The Round TableThe Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, International History Review, and The Journal of Strategic Studies.
 Kaushik Roy teaches at the History Department, Presidency College, at Kolkata. He is also affiliated with the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo and the United Nations University. Previously, he was a Nehru Memorial Museum and Library Fellow. Roy specializes in Indian military history. He has 27 articles in peer-reviewed journals and has edited contributed volumes and four books. His latest publication is War and Society in Colonial India from Oxford University Press, New Delhi. Ulrich Schnakenberg is a doctoral candidate in the Department of History of the University of Kassel. He is presently working on British occupation and constitutional policy in postwar Germany.
 Frank Schumacher is assistant professor of North American history at the University of Erfurt, Germany. He is the author of Kalter Krieg und Propaganda. Die USA, der Kampf um die Weltmeinung und die ideelle Westbindung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1945-1955 . He has published articles on nineteenth- and twentieth-century North America and diplomatic, military, cultural and environmental history, and is currently at work on his second book entitled The American Way of Empire: The United States and the Quest for Imperial Identity, 1880-1920 .
 Brent D. Singleton is senior assistant librarian at California State University, San Bernardino, with expertise in Islam in West Africa and Islam in the United States. His publications include Yankee Muslim: The Asian Travels of Mohammed Alexander Russell Webb (2007); “Minarets in Dixie: Proposals to Introduce Islam in the American Sout,” ( Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, vol. 26, issue 3, 2006); “African Bibliophiles: Books and Libraries in Medieval Timbuktu” ( Libraries & Culture, vol. 39, issue 1, 2004); and “The Ummah Slowly Bled: A Select Bibliography of African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas and the Caribbean” ( Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, vol. 22, issue 2, 2002).
 Olena V. Smyntyna is a doctor of science, full professor, and head of the Department of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Ukraine, Faculty of History, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University in Odessa. She is a specialist in the fields of environmental history, prehistoric archaeology, and the history of ideas and theories in history, archaeology, and anthropology, and author of 140 publications, including two monographs.
 David R. Snyder is an assistant professor of history at Austin Peay State University. He specializes in military history, Nazi Germany, and the Holocaust. He is author of Sex Crimes under the Wehrmacht, forthcoming from University of Nebraska Press.
 Manu P. Sobti is an assistant professor at the University of Milwaukee and lectures on architecture and urban design in Central Asia
 Stephen K. Stein is a lecturer at the U.S. Naval War College in Rhode Island. He holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the University of Colorado at Denver and a doctoral degree from The Ohio State University. He specializes in military and diplomatic history, twentieth-century U.S. history, and ancient history.
 Eva-Maria Stolberg is a lecturer at the Institute of East European & Russian History at the University of Bonn. Her current research is on the “Landscape of the Vistula in Polish Historical Memory.”
 Moshe Terdman has a PhD from the Department of Maritime Civilizations of the University of Haifa. The title of his dissertation is “Mamluk Maritime Policy in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the Red Sea.” He also holds master’s and bachelor’s degrees from the Department for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies at the Hebrew University. He is a research fellow in PRISM (Project for the Research of Islamic Movements) and the director there of the Islam in Africa Project.
 Michael Thompson teaches history at Miyazaki International College in Japan. He received his doctoral degree from Carnegie Mellon University. His research interests include the history of the Catholic Church, environmental history, and ethnicity and nationalism.
 Mike Timonin holds a master’s degree in history from James Madison University, where he currently works as an adjunct faculty member.
 Philip Towle is reader in international relations at Cambridge University’s Centre of International Studies, where he has taught for the last 26 years. His recent publications include Forced Disarmament from the Napoleonic Campaigns to the Gulf War (1997); Democracy and Peacemaking: Negotiations and Debates 1815-1973 (2000); From Ally to Enemy: Anglo-Japanese Military Relations, 1904-45 (2006); and, with Robert J. Jackson, Temptations of Power: The United States in Global Politics after 9/11 (2006). He has also edited Estimating Foreign Military Power (1982); Japanese Prisoners of War (2000), with Margaret Kosuge and Yoichi Kibata; and Anglo-Japanese Relations in the 20th Century: One Hundred Years of Trade and Prejudice (2007), with Margaret Kosuge.
 Georgia Tres is a visiting assistant professor at Oakland University. Her areas of expertise are in comparative literature, cinema, and cultural studies. She is editor of The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Sex, Love, and Courtship and Women and War: A Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present.
 David Turpie is a doctoral candidate at the University of Maine. He specializes in nineteenth- and twentieth-century U.S. foreign relations and in the nineteenthcentury British Empire.
 Jitendra Uttam is an assistant professor at the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. His area of expertise includes international political economy, with particular interest in the Asian development modes. He has recently published “Korea’s New Techno-Scientific State: Mapping a Strategic Change in the ‘Development State’” in the China Report vol. 42, no. 3 (2006).
 Andrekos Varnava completed his doctoral degree in history at the University of Melbourne. He specializes in the modern history of Cyprus and the British Empire, and more generally the history of the modern Near East. His focus ranges from military, strategic, and political issues to social and cultural questions. His last three publications have appeared in Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, vol. 29, no. 2, 2005; The Cyprus Review, vol. 17, no. 2, 2005; and in the book Britain in Cyprus: Colonialism and Post-Colonialism 1878-2004 (2006). In October 2006, he took up the post of assistant professor of history at Cyprus College, Nicosia, and he currently holds the post of honorary fellow in the Department of History at the University of Melbourne.
 Thomas D. Veve is an associate professor of history at Dalton State College. He received his bachelor’s degree from Hofstra University in 1974, his master’s degree in 1983 from Marquette University in 1983, and his doctoral degree from Marquette in 1990. Dr. Veve, commissioned as an infantry officer after completing ROTC at Hofstra, retired from the United States Army Reserve as a Lieutenant Colonel in 2002, after 28 years of service. He has published one book, The Duke of Wellington and the British Army of Occupation in France, 1815-1818 (Greenwood Press, 1992) and has recently published numerous entries in several encyclopedias, including Naval Warfare, Encyclopedia of the Second World War, French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and The Encyclopedia of American Military History.
 Ilya Vinkovetsky is an assistant professor of history at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, Canada. His areas of expertise include Russian history and the history of colonialism in North America. His recent publications are “The Russian-American Company as a Colonial Contractor for the Russian Empire,” in Alexei Miller and Alfred J. Rieber, eds. Imperial Rule. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2004; “Circumnavigation, Empire, Modernity, Race: The Impact of Round-the-World Voyages on Russia’s Imperial Consciousness.” Ab Imperio, 2001, nos. 1–2; “Why Did Russia Sell Alaska?” Acta Slavica Iaponica, vol. 23, 2006; “Classical Eurasianism and Its Legacy.” Canadian-American Slavic Studies, vol. 34, no. 2, 2000; Editor and Translator: Petr Savitskii, Petr Suvchinskii, Nikolai Trubetskoi, Georgii Florovskii, Exodus to the East: Forebodings and Events: An Affirmation of the Eurasians. Idyllwild, CA: Charles Schlacks, Jr. Publisher, 1996.
 Andrew Jackson Waskey is associate professor of social science at Dalton State College in Dalton, Georgia. He has presented lectures and papers in Europe and Asia, as well as the United States; has published scholarly papers, numerous encyclopedia articles, book chapters, and a co-authored book on American government; and has served as the editor of an encyclopedia of world history. His areas of expertise are law, politics and government, world religions, philosophy, and general history. He is a specialist on John Calvin’s political thought.
 Carl Peter Watts completed his doctoral thesis on the Rhodesian problem at the University of Birmingham (UK) where he was Honorary Lecturer in Modern History and Visiting Lecturer in War Studies. He has taught at Grand Valley State University, Michigan; the University of Wisconsin–Whitewater; and Indiana University–Purdue University, Fort Wayne. He has published a number of articles on Rhodesia in journals, such as the Michigan Academicican (2004), Twentieth Century British History (2005), Diplomatic History (2006), Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History (2007), and Commonwealth and Comparative Politics (2007). He is currently writing a book, Rhodesia’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence: A Study in International Crisis, which will be published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2008.
 Nurfadzilah Yahaya is a graduate student at the National University of Singapore. Her thesis is “Good Friends and Dangerous Enemies—British Images of the Arab Elite in Colonial Singapore (1819–1942).” The thesis investigates British colonial perceptions of the Arab elite in Singapore and traces how the Arabs maintained a distinct Arab identity, despite being of mixed Arab and Malay descent.
 Jeffrey T. Zalar is an assistant professor of history at Pepperdine University in Malibu, California. His published work concerns the cultural and intellectual history of the German Empire.
 Wenxian Zhang has been an associate professor at Rollins College since 1995; he serves as the head of archives and special collections in the Olin Library. He has published numerous articles in the areas of library historical research, information studies, and Chinese librarianship.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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