Zionism
   A movement for the establishment of a national homeland for the Jews, arising in the 1880s from a reaction to anti-Semitism in Europe, not only in the form of pogroms in the Russian Empire —popular outbreaks of violence directed against Jews including the destruction of property and massacre, encouraged by the legal persecution of Jews led by Alexander III—but also evidenced in the Dreyfus Affair in a far more liberal society such as France. The movement was founded by Theodor Herzl (1860–1904), a Hungarian-Jewish journalist whose leadership led in 1897 to the First Zionist Conference in Basle, Switzerland.
   While Herzl lived the Zionist movement was run from Vienna, but after his death its offices moved first to Cologne and then to Berlin. Although many Jews fled persecution in Europe for the United States, in 1891 alone 300,000 from Russia, Herzl’s book The Jewish State posed the issue of the founding of a Jewish state in the historic homeland Palestine, a goal not realized until after the Holocaust and the establishment of Israel in 1948. Zionism was thus in large part a product of the coarsening of European politics by way of popular nationalism and heightened international tension between 1880s and 1914, a phenomenon which many Jews rightly calculated was only going to get worse.
   FURTHER READING:
    Bein, Alex. Theodore Herzl: A Biography. Translated by Maurice Samuel. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1941.
   CARL CAVANAGH HODGE

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zionism — is an international political movement that originally supported the reestablishment of a homeland for the Jewish People in Palestine (Hebrew: Eretz Yisra el, “the Land of Israel”), and continues primarily as support for the modern state of… …   Wikipedia

  • Zionism — i on*ism, n. [Zion + ism.] Among the Jews, a theory, plan, or movement for colonizing their own race in Palestine, the land of Zion, or, if that is impracticable, elsewhere, either for religious or nationalizing purposes; called also {Zion… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Zionism — (n.) movement for forming (later supporting) a Jewish national state in Palestine, 1896, from Ger. Zionismus (from ZION (Cf. Zion) + Latin derived suffix ismus); first recorded 1886 in Selbstemancipation, by Matthias Acher (pseudonym of Nathan… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Zionism — ► NOUN ▪ a movement for the development and protection of a Jewish nation in Israel. DERIVATIVES Zionist noun & adjective …   English terms dictionary

  • Zionism — [zī′ə niz΄əm] n. a movement formerly for reestablishing, now for supporting, the Jewish national state of Israel Zionist n., adj. Zionistic adj …   English World dictionary

  • ZIONISM — This article is arranged according to the following outline: the word and its meaning forerunners ḤIBBAT ZION ROOTS OF ḤIBBAT ZION background to the emergence of the movement the beginnings of the movement PINSKER S AUTOEMANCIPATION settlement… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Zionism — Zionist, n., adj. Zionistic, adj. Zionite /zuy euhnuyt /, n. /zuy euh niz euhm/, n. a worldwide Jewish movement that resulted in the establishment and development of the state of Israel. [1895 1900; ZION + ISM] * * * Jewish nationalism movement… …   Universalium

  • Zionism —    A term coined by Nathan Birnbaum in 1890 for the movement seeking the return of the Jewish people to Palestine. After 1896, Zionism referred to the political movement founded by Theodor Herzl seeking a Jewish national home in Palestine. The… …   Historical Dictionary of Israel

  • Zionism —    Although the idea of Zionism, or the return of the Jews to their ancestral homeland in Palestine, had been proposed by such diverse 19th century personalities as Moses Hess, Rabbi Hirsch Zvi Kalischer, and the leaders of Russian Zionism, it… …   Historical dictionary of the Holocaust

  • Zionism — [[t]za͟ɪ͟ənɪzəm[/t]] N UNCOUNT Zionism is a movement which was originally concerned with establishing a political and religious state in Palestine for Jewish people, and is now concerned with the development of Israel …   English dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”