Victor Emmanuel II


Victor Emmanuel II
(1820–1878)
   The King of Piedmont-Sardinia (1849–1861) and Italy (1861–1878), Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy assumed the throne of Piedmont after the Austrians defeated his father Charles Albert at the Battle of Novara in March 1849 and forced him to abdicate. The former king had been a leader in the effort to unify the peninsula, but his delay in intervening on behalf of Milan cost him and the House of Savoy much good will and aroused suspicion of his real intentions. When Turin rose in the revolutionary fervor that gripped Italy in February and March 1848, Charles Albert granted his kingdom a constitution and prepared to help the Milanese defend themselves against the Austrians. With aid arriving from the other Italian states, Charles Albert preferred to delay for the right moment to strike. Some Liberals saw in this move a monarch’s attempt to undermine a popular revolution. The resulting in-fighting weakened the revolutionary governments and allowed the Austrians to take Venice and Milan, and defeat the Piedmontese.
   Victor Emmanuel II had to be extremely careful in dealing with the Austrians, who demanded the negation of the constitution, and the radicals, who wanted him to keep it. The king did not enjoy the goodwill of republicans who believed his father had betrayed the cause, and so had to worry about an insurrection. But he had no intention of revoking the constitution or of losing control of the monarchy. Instead, the king cracked down on the radicals in parliament by issuing the famous Moncalieri Proclamation of 1849, stating that if parliament was not to his liking, he would not be held responsible for its future. The ploy worked, because the subsequent election brought a group of moderate reformers, led by Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, to power. Cavour quickly came to the king’s attention as a hardheaded politician who would do whatever it took to achieve unification, and so the king asked Cavour to form a government in 1852. Cavour did exactly what Victor Emmanuel wanted and unified Italy under the Kingdom of Piedmont.
   See also <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Di Scala, Spencer. Italy from Revolution to Republic: 1700 to the Present. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1998.
   FREDERICK H. DOTOLO

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Victor-Emmanuel II — de Savoie Dynastie depuis 1820 Maison de Savoie Casa di Savoia …   Wikipédia en Français

  • VICTOR-EMMANUEL II — (1820 1878) roi de Sardaigne (1849 1861) et d’Italie (1861 1878) Dernier roi de Piémont, premier souverain de l’État unitaire, Victor Emmanuel de Savoie a été placé par l’historiographie officielle de la monarchie au rang des «pères de la patrie» …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Victor Emmanuel — may refer to: *Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia *Victor Emmanuel II of Italy *Victor Emmanuel III of Italy *Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples *Vittorio Emanuele Orlando;See also *Víctor Manuel is a Spanish singer …   Wikipedia

  • Victor Emmanuel I. — Victor Emmanuel I., König von Sardinien, geb. 1759, regierte 1802 bis 1821, wo er zu Gunsten seines Bruders Karl Felix resignirte, st. 1824; s. Sardinien …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Victor Emmanuel II. — Victor Emmanuel II., geb. 14. März 1820, vermählt 1842 mit der (1855 gestorbenen) Erzherzogin Adelheid, einer Tochter des Erzherzogs Rainer, aus welcher Ehe 5 Kinder leben, König seit 23. März 1849; s. Sardinien …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Victor Emmanuel II — 1820 78; king of Sardinia (1849 61) & 1st king of Italy (1861 78) …   English World dictionary

  • Victor-Emmanuel — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Prénom composé des rois : Victor Emmanuel Ier, roi de Sardaigne de 1802 à 1821 ; Victor Emmanuel II, roi de Savoie de 1849 à 1861, puis d Italie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Victor Emmanuel II — 1820 78, king of Sardinia 1849 78; first king of Italy 1861 78. * * * Italian Vittorio Emanuele born March 14, 1820, Turin, Piedmont, Kingdom of Sardinia died Jan. 9, 1878, Rome, Italy King of Sardinia (1849–61) and first king of a united Italy… …   Universalium

  • Victor Emmanuel II — Vittorio Emanuele II (1820–1878)    Born in Turin on 19 March 1820, this last king of Sardinia and first king of a united Italy grew up in Tuscany and Piedmont. He was the son of Charles Albert and Maria Teresa of Tuscany. As a young man, he… …   Historical Dictionary of modern Italy

  • Victor Emmanuel — Vic′tor Emman′uel [[t]ˈvɪk tər[/t]] n. 1) big Victor Emmanuel II, 1820–78, king of Sardinia 1849–78; first king of Italy 1861–78 2) big Victor Emmanuel III, 1869–1947, king of Italy 1900–46 …   From formal English to slang


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