Triple Alliance
(1882)
   A secret alliance of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy pledging mutual assistance in the event of an attack by France. Franco-Italian relations had been strained since the Italian occupation of Rome in 1870. When France formalized its protectorate over Tunis in 1881, Italy decided to pursue an alliance with Austria-Hungary, already allied with Germany.
   Germany and Austria-Hungary were initially cool to Italian advances, as there appeared to be no benefits to them. Berlin was in fact happy to see France diverted by North African adventures, while Vienna had made it clear that Austria-Hungary was unwilling to go to war against France on Germany’s behalf and even less willing to enter a war for the sake of Italy. A crisis in the Habsburg province of Bosnia over the autumn and winter of 1881–1882, however, led to a reevaluation of the situation by both. Though Russia had remained officially neutral during the crisis, prominent ministers and generals had spoken in favor of Franco-Russian alliance in support of the Bosnians. Fear of such sentiments drove Germany and Austria-Hungary into the arms of Italy.
   The alliance was signed on May 20 as an agreement renewable every five years. Like the Dual Alliance, which it replaced, it was a defensive pact designed to work against France or against “two or more Great Powers not members of the alliance.” In the event of an Austro-Russian war, Italy was pledged to benevolent neutrality. Finally, to allay Italian fears, the pact stated that it “cannot . . . in any case be regarded as directed against England.” The Triple Alliance provided the greatest benefit to Italy by making her part of the Great Power system and providing her with stronger partners in the event of conflict with France. For Germany and Austria-Hungary, the gains were minimal, as the alliance removed the threat of an additional partner for Russia and posed for France a complication in any war with Germany. The pact was renewed until 1912. The Italians chose not to enter World War I in 1914, because, they argued, the terms of the alliance had not been met.
   See also <>; <>; <>; <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Langer, William L. European Alliance and Alignments 1871–1890. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962;
    Strachan, Hew. The First World War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001;
    Tranter, Nigel. Triple Alliance. London: Coronet, 2002.
   DAVID H. OLIVIER

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Triple-alliance — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le terme Triple Alliance désigne une alliance entre trois identités. Voir aussi : Triple alliance aztèque Mexique entre les cités aztèques,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Triple Alliance — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le terme Triple Alliance désigne une alliance entre trois identités. Voir aussi : Triple alliance aztèque Mexique entre les cités aztèques,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Triple alliance — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le terme Triple Alliance désigne une alliance entre trois identités. Voir aussi : Triple alliance aztèque Mexique entre les cités aztèques,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Triple Alliance — n. 1. an alliance of England, Sweden, and the Netherlands against France in 1668 2. an alliance of Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands against Spain in 1717 3. an alliance of Great Britain, Austria, and Russia against France in 1795 4. an… …   English World dictionary

  • Triple-Alliance — V. Alliance (Triple ) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Triple-Alliance — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le terme Triple Alliance désigne une alliance entre trois identités : Triple alliance (Mésoamérique) : mieux connue sous le nom d empire aztèque …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Triple Alliance — There have been numerous alliances known as the Triple Alliance:* Aztec Triple Alliance Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan. Better known as the Aztec Empire. * Triple Alliance (1596) England, the Dutch Republic and France * Triple Alliance (1668) …   Wikipedia

  • Triple Alliance — 1. the alliance (1882 1915) of Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy. 2. a league (1717) of France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands against Spain. 3. a league (1668) of England, Sweden, and the Netherlands against France. * * * (1882) Secret… …   Universalium

  • Triple Alliance —    A secret treaty signed by Germany, AustriaHungary, and Italy on 20 May 1882, the Triple Alliance bound the signatories to offer mutual assistance in the event that any one of them should be attacked by two or more powers Russia and France… …   Historical Dictionary of modern Italy

  • Triple Alliance — /ˌtrɪpəl əˈlaɪəns/ (say .tripuhl uh luyuhns) noun 1. the alliance (1882–1915) between Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy. 2. a league (1717) of France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands against Spain. 3. a league (1668) of England, Sweden, and… …   Australian English dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”