Treaty Ports


Treaty Ports
   Ports in China, Japan, and Korea that were opened to the trade and residence of foreigners under pressure from Western powers. The Treaty of Nanjing ending the Opium War in 1842 forced China to open five treaty ports; a second list of ports was opened after the Arrow War, so that by 1917 there were 92, some of them opened on China’s own initiative. Western activity in the Far East concentrated in the treaty ports, where consulates exercised extraterritorial jurisdiction and, in the larger ports - Shanghai, Tientsin, Hankow - settlements administered exclusively by the European inhabitants, “concessions” as they were commonly called, were created. Japan opened Shimoda and Hakodate in 1854 and added five more ports in 1858.
   FURTHER READING:
    Greenberg, Michael. British Trade and the Opening of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951.
   NIELS P. PETERSSON

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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