Austrian Empire
   The Kaisertum Österreich was proclaimed on August 11, 1804, by the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. This was done as a reaction to the gradual dismantlement and possible dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the selfcoronation of Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor of the French. Under pressure from Napoleon and the Confederation of the Rhine created by him, Francis dissolved de facto the Holy Roman Empire on August 6, 1806. The hereditary Austrian Empire encompassed all of the Habsburg’s territories until 1867, when the Ausgleich transformed the Habsburg Empire into Austria-Hungary, the union of the Kingdom of Hungary (and the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia), and the other kingdoms and lands under Habsburg rule.
   See also <>; <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1526-1918. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974;
    Macartney, C. A. The Habsburg Empire, 1790-1918. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971.
   GUENTHER KRONENBITTER

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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