Telegraph
   From the Greek word meaning distant writing - tele distant, graphein to write - the invention of telegraphy revolutionized communications as it was adopted by government offices, press, business, military, and the travel industry. Count Alessandro Volta (1745–1827) invented in 1800 the voltaic pile (battery) for producing continuous electric current. Hans Christian Oersted (1777–1851) discovered the relationship between electric current and magnetism. An electromagnetic telegraph was developed by Paul Schilling (1768–1837) in 1832, and Joseph Henry (1797–1878) operated the electromagnetic telegraph. Charles Wheatstone and William F. Cook made significant advances in the 1830s. Much of the credit is given to Samuel Finley Morse (1791–1872) as “father of the telegraph.” Morse applied existing technology commercially, particularly that of Joseph Henry, and worked out a viable communication system using combinations of short clicks (dots) and long clicks (dashes) for the letters of the alphabet. These were transmitted by electrical pulses from a sender along a wire. By means of an electromagnetically controlled pencil, the receiver prepared dots and dashes equivalent to the extent of the current. On May 24, 1844, Morse sent the message, What hath God wrought, the first one over long distance between Washington and Baltimore. In spite of strong opposition in some quarters, like the office of postmaster-general of the United States, Congress approved the Morse Bill. Skilled operators sent and received messages with great speed with Morse code. As it was difficult to convert Morse code into plain language, David E. Hughes (1831–1900) solved the problem by inventing a printing telegraph having a rotating wheel with alphabets. The use of punched paper tape began in 1858, and a new era in telecommunications was ushered in by the Atlantic cable of 1866 joining Europe and the United States.
   The Crimean War witnessed the first military use of the telegraph, when a submarine cable running from the Crimea to Varna, Bulgaria, and standard cable from Varna to London and Paris gave the allies direct communication with the theater of war. Telegraph was also used during the Indian Mutiny, American Civil War, and the Franco-Prussian War. The telegraph also changed diplomatic communication, but its most famous use before 1914 was in the most undiplomatic use of the Ems Telegram by Otto von Bismarck to provoke the Franco-Prussian conflict.
   See also <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Brooks, John. Telephone: The First Hundred Years . New York: Harper & Row, 1976;
    Gordon, John Steele. A Thread across the Ocean: The Heroic Story of the Transatlantic Cable . New York: Perennial, 2003;
    Standage, Tom. The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century’s On-Line Pioneers . New York: Berkley, 1999.
   PATIT PABAN MISHRA

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Telegraph — Tel e*graph, n. [Gr. ? far, far off (cf. Lith. toli) + graph: cf. F. t[ e]l[ e]graphe. See {Graphic}.] An apparatus, or a process, for communicating intelligence rapidly between distant points, especially by means of preconcerted visible or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Telegraph — (Fernschreiber) (telegraph; télégraphe; telegrafo). Man versteht darunter eine Vorrichtung, mit der die an einem Ort zum Ausdruck gebrachten Gedanken an einem andern Ort sofort in für das Auge oder das Ohr verständlichen Zeichen wahrnehmbar… …   Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens

  • Telegraph — (griech., »Fernschreiber«; hierzu die Tafeln »Telegraphenapparate I u. II« und die »Karte des Welttelegraphennetzes« bei S. 386), jede zur Nachrichtenbeförderung dienende Vorrichtung, durch die der an einem Orte (Senderort) zum sinnlichen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Telegraph — (vom Griechischen τῆλε, in die Ferne, u. γράφειν, schreiben), eine Vorrichtung od. Maschine zur schnellen Fortpflanzung von Nachrichten in größere Fernen. Das Bedürfniß Nachrichten in größere Fernen, als es durch die menschliche Sprache geschehen …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Telegraph — Sm erw. obs. (18. Jh.) Neoklassische Bildung. Entlehnt aus frz. télegraph, das eine neoklassische Bildung aus gr. tẽle und graph ist. Zuerst angewandt auf das 1792 von Chappe entwickelte mechanisch optische Gerät zur Nachrichtenübermittlung, dann …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • telegraph — ► NOUN ▪ a system or device for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, especially one creating signals by making and breaking an electrical connection. ► VERB 1) send a message to by telegraph. 2) send (a message) by telegraph. 3)… …   English terms dictionary

  • Telegraph — Tel e*graph, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Telegraphed}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Telegraphing}.] [F. t[ e]l[ e]graphier.] To convey or announce by telegraph. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • telegraph — UK US /ˈtelɪgrɑːf/ noun [U] ► COMMUNICATIONS in the past, the method of sending or receiving messages by electrical or radio signals telegraph verb [I or T] ► »They had telegraphed to say that they had arrived …   Financial and business terms

  • Telegraph — Telegraph, the →↑Daily Telegraph, The …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • telegraph — [tel′ə graf΄] n. [Fr télégraphe: see TELE & GRAPH: orig. used of a semaphore] 1. Obs. any signaling apparatus 2. an apparatus or system that converts a coded message into electric impulses and sends it to a distant receiver: originally, Morse… …   English World dictionary

  • Telegraph — Telegraph, der leblose Dolmetscher des geflügelten Wortes, der Träger jener neuentdeckten Schnellschreibekunst in der Luft, mit der man urplötzlich der Ferne seine geheimen Nachrichten leserlich mittheilt, – die von den Gebrüdern Chappo zuerst… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”