Shanghai


Shanghai
   Situated at the mouth of the Yangtze River in east central China, Shanghai was one of the five original treaty ports - along with Canton, Fuzhou, Xiamen, and Ningbo - opened to foreign commerce in 1842. Shanghai grew quickly into China’s largest city, commercial and, later, industrial centre. By 1850, the surrounding swampland had been drained and the river banks shored up, thus accommodating an influx of foreign shipping. The city also became the focal point of foreign cultural influence and economic interests in China. The latter were concentrated in the International Settlement, administered by the quasi-autonomous Shanghai Municipal Council, elected by the richest among the Western firms and businessmen.
   See also <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Davidson-Houston, James Vivian. Yellow Creek: The Story of Shanghai. Philadelphia: Dufour Editions, 1964;
    Johnson, Linda Cooke. Shanghai: From Market Town to Treaty Port, 1074–1858. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.
   NIELS P. PETERSSON

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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