Schönbrunn, Treaty of
(1809)
   A peace treaty signed on October 14 between France and Austria, which ended the 1809 War of the Fifth Coalition following Napoleon Bonaparte ’s victory at Wagram, also signed by Napoleon’s ally, Russia. The treaty expressed Napoleon’s dominant position, as Austria was required to give up territories to the French emperor, who would then reallocate them. Salzburg and Berechtesgaden, together with part of Upper Austria, would later pass to Bavaria. The county of Görz, Montefalcone, Trieste, the province of Carniola, together with the parts of Carinthia and civilian Croatia, six Regiments (the Karlstadt and Banal districts) of the Military Frontier, Fiume and the Hungarian Littoral (coast), plus Austrian Istria lying to the west of the Save River would pass to the Kingdom of Italy.
   These territories would later be consolidated with French-held Dalmatia into the Kingdom of Illyria under Napoleon’s rule. Austria also ceded Razuns, an enclave in eastern Switzerland. The king of Saxony had been a new French ally in the 1809 war and was rewarded with enclaves within Saxony previously attached to Habsburg Bohemia. The Saxon king was also ruler of the duchy of Warsaw and was awarded the Austrian territories in Poland taken under the 1795 Third Partition, that is West Galicia. For its half-hearted support in the war, Russia received a small part of eastern Galicia around Brody. Austria recognized the changes of monarch in Spain, Portugal, and Naples, while also joining the Continental System blockade against the United Kingdom. The Austrian army was reduced to 150,000 men and the Habsburg Empire was to pay an indemnity of 85 million French francs.
   See also <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Petre, F. L. Napoleon and the Archduke Charles. London: J. Lane, 1909;
    Rothenberg, Gunther E. The Napoleonic Wars. London: Cassell, 1999;
    Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics, 1763–1848. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994.
   DAVID HOLLINS

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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