Armenia
   A Caucasian territory on the northeastern border of modern Turkey that in the sixteenth century was divided between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia. In 1828, the Persians ceded the northern part of Armenia to Russia. In the late nineteenth century nationalist movements emerged in both Ottoman and Russian Armenia. The Russian imperial regime was less overbearing than that of the Ottoman Turks, who, in 1894–96 and again during World War I, waged a campaign of genocide against the Armenians in their half of the territory. The Treaty of San Stefano temporarily placed Armenia under Russian protection, but the Congress of Berlin subsequently reversed the decision.
   See also <>; Ottoman Empire; Russian Empire.
   FURTHER READING:
    Adshead, S.A.M. Central Asia in World History. New York: St. Martin’s, 1994.
   CARL CAVANAGH HODGE

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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