October Manifesto
(1905)
   The response of Nicholas II to Revolution of 1905 in Russia. By 1900, Russia faced serious problems: a changing social structure, a growing revolutionary movement, and political stagnation. Coupled with the disastrous Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, these factors led to social unrest and revolution. Nicholas attempted to placate the public with this document that guaranteed civil liberties: freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and association and freedom from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment. It also created a Duma with the power to approve all proposed laws and promised further reform in the future. In principle, it created a constitutional monarchy; in reality, Nicholas had no intention of sharing power. Once order was restored it became clear that very little had been accomplished by the revolution. For the tsar, however, the manifesto split the opposition, satisfying liberals and moderates and temporarily stripping the revolutionary movement of much of its Strength.
   See also <>; <> Illyich.
   FURTHER READING:
    Figes, Orlando. A People’s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891–1924 . New York: Penguin, 1996;
    Freeze, Gregory L. From Supplication to Revolution: A Documentary Social History of Imperial Russia . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988;
    Pipes, Richard. The Russian Revolution . New York: Vintage, 1990;
    Shanin, Teodor. Russia, 1905–07: Revolution as a Moment of Truth . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986.
   LEE A. FARROW

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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