New Brunswick
   A nineteenth-century British settlement colony south of the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, north of the Bay of Fundy, and west of Nova Scotia. It was originally inhabited by native tribes and by French Acadian settlers. Many of the latter were expelled in the eighteenth century in response to their doubtful loyalty to the British Empire. As a consequence of the American War of Independence, an influx of loyalist Americans swelled the population, and led to the 1784 severance of New Brunswick from Nova Scotia. They gave the colony a pro-British and often Tory character. New Brunswick was particularly important as a source of masts for the Royal Navy. The exact line of demarcation of the boundary with the United States became a controversial issue in the 1830s, as rival parties of lumbermen clashed in contested territories, and troops were called out on both sides.
   The boundary question was settled by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842, and New Brunswick ceased to be a cause of international concern. Like all British North American colonies, relations between the imperially appointed governor, his officials, and a popularly elected assembly were contentious in the early nineteenth century, with issues such as lands and revenues at the center of disputes. New Brunswick was among the last North American colonies in which the principle of responsible government became active, waiting until 1854. In 1867, New Brunswick entered the Dominion of Canada as one of the initial four provinces, along with Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario.
   See also <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    MacNutt, W. S. New Brunswick: A History, 1784–1867. Toronto: Macmillan, 1963.
   MARK F. PROUDMAN

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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