- Navarino, Battle of
- (1827)The last major naval action under sail, Navarino was fought on October 20, 1827, during the Greek War of Independence (1821–1832) between an Egyptian-Turkish fleet at anchor in the Greek harbor of Navarino and a combined British, French, and Russian fleet. The governments of Britain, France, and Russia, in sympathy with the Greek struggle against Ottoman oppression, demanded that Egypt and Turkey withdraw their troops from Greece. Both countries refused and brought reinforcements to Navarino, where a Turko-Egyptian squadron had anchored. A combined British, French, and Russian naval force entered the harbor and anchored amongst the opposing ships.The ensuing battle was little more than a slugging match of artillery, with no maneuver. The Turko-Egyptian fleet, heavily outgunned, was annihilated, with three-quarters of its vessels sunk or set on fire by their own crews to prevent capture. The Allies lost about 700; their opponents’ losses, although not known, are thought to have been very large.See also <
>.FURTHER READING:Woodhouse, Christopher. The Battle of Navarino. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1965.GREGORY FREMONT-BARNES
Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.