Mediterranean Agreements


Mediterranean Agreements
(1887)
   Initially, the Mediterranean Agreements were a series of bilateral agreements signed between Britain and Italy on February 12, 1887, and between Britain and Austro-Hungary on the following March 24. These initial exchanges received further clarification in a trilateral exchange of notes, ratified on December 12, 1887, known as the Second Mediterranean Agreement. The agreements pledged the participants to the maintenance of the status quo in the Eastern Mediterranean and adjacent seas. In effect, this also meant that should the status of Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire, the Balkans, Egypt, or Tripoli be altered by outside powers or internal unrest, these three powers would work in coordination together. Although considerably short of a formal alliance, the agreements marked a decade long period in which Britain associated its interests in European diplomacy closely with the powers of the Triple Alliance, composed of Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Italy. Several factors led to this alignment. On the part of the British, friction with Russia over the delineation of the Afghan frontier - the Penjdeh crisis of 1885 - and especially divergent positions regarding Bulgaria pushed London to look for diplomatic partners to check the Russians. Continued friction with France over the nature of the British occupation of Egypt since 1882 precluded such an agreement between those two powers and led the British to turn instead toward Berlin and Vienna. A domestic crisis in France resulting in the Boulanger episode worried France’s neighbors, particularly Germany and Italy, about possible adventurism in French foreign policy.
   The Italians had been pursuing an alliance or alignment with Britain since the early 1880s, in part to win British support against French expansion in North Africa. In particular, the Italians felt they had been cheated when France stole a march on them in Tunisia in 1881. In both the case of Italy and Austro-Hungary, Otto von Bismarck encouraged an approach to the British, hoping to force Britain to serve as the lead check on Russia’s Balkan designs, while allowing him to maintain his support for the Dreikaiserbund . At the same time, the association of Britain with Italy and Austro-Hungary also helped Bismarck successfully negotiate the extension of the Triple Alliance, especially with Italy, which was signed on February 20, 1887. The Mediterranean Agreements in many ways marked the high point of Anglo-German relations before the tension-prone reign of Kaiser Wilhelm II.
   See also <>; <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Bridge, F. R. From Sadowa to Sarajeva: the Foreign Policy of Austria-Hungary 1860–1914. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972;
    Kennedy, Paul. The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism 1860–1914. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1982;
    Langer, William L. European Alliance and Alignments 1871–1890. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962;
    Lowe, C. J. The Reluctant Imperialists: British Foreign Policy 1878–1902. New York: Macmillan, 1967;
    Lowe, C. J. Salisbury and the Mediterranean: 1886–1896. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965.
   ROBERT DAVIS

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mediterranean Dialogue — The Mediterranean Dialogue, first launched in 1994, is a forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean. Its stated aim is to create good relations and better mutual understanding and confidence throughout the region,… …   Wikipedia

  • Mediterranean Oil Dispute — A Turkish Navy frigate similar to the type that confronted Cypriot survey vessels in 2008 The Mediterranean Oil Dispute is a current political incident and standoff between the Republic of Cyprus and Turkey, and potentially affecting other… …   Wikipedia

  • Mediterranean Policy —   The collection of trade agreements signed by the EC with states that border the Mediterranean, and various educational, economic and scientific initiatives that focus upon the Mediterranean area …   Glossary of the European Union and European Communities

  • Union for the Mediterranean — Members of the Union for the Mediterranean   Member states of the European Union …   Wikipedia

  • Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean — The Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean, (PAM) is an Organisation established with the aim of bringing together all the littoral States of the Mediterranean on an equal footing under a unique forum of their own, to examine questions and… …   Wikipedia

  • List of environmental agreements — List of international environmental agreements. Most of the following agreements are legally binding. Agreements are listed in both alphabetical order and in order of topic.These lists need tidying up and making congruent with one… …   Wikipedia

  • List of free trade agreements — This is list of free trade agreements and free trade areas between one or more countries and/or trade blocs. For a list of blocs, see trade bloc. Every customs union, trade common market and economic and monetary union has also a free trade area… …   Wikipedia

  • 1949 Armistice Agreements — The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/9ec4a332e2ff9a128525643d007702e6!OpenDocument Egypt Israel]… …   Wikipedia

  • Naval warfare in the Mediterranean during World War I — Naval warfare in the Mediterranean (1914 1918) Part of Naval warfare of World War I The Mediterranean Sea and surrounding regions …   Wikipedia

  • University "Mediterranean" — Univerzitet Mediteran Established 30 May 2006 Type Private …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.