Madras


Madras
   A port city, present-day Chennai on India ’s southeast coast, Madras was founded by Francis Day, an English East India Company representative, in 1639. The East India Company had been granted a charter by Queen Elizabeth in December 1600 for a monopoly on all English trade east of the Cape of Good Hope. Company merchants sought to create trading outposts allowing direct access to highly valued Indian textile sources. Day’s land grant from the Nayak of Poonamallee, the local ruler of the Vijayanagar Empire, fulfilled that objective. By the eighteenth century, Madras became the most important city in South India. In the next two centuries Madras, along with Bombay and Calcutta, came to represent one of three legs of the powerful British Empire in India. The city served as the capital of the Madras Presidency, comprising most of South India.
   The port was captured by a French force in 1746, but the British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and subsequently fortified the base to withstand further attacks from the French and Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore. By the late eighteenth century the British had conquered most of the region around Tamil Nadu and the modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka to establish the Madras Presidency. Under British rule the city grew into a major urban center and naval base. With the advent of railways in India, Madras was connected to the other towns such as Bombay and Calcutta, facilitating communication and trade with the hinterland. In 1857, a university was founded in Madras; thereafter, its commercial and intellectual importance made the city a center of Indian nationalism. In 1909, an artificial harbor capable of servicing ocean-going ships was completed at Madras. It was the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers during World War I, by the German light cruiser S.M.S. Emden.
   See also <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Krishnaswami, Nayudu W. S. Old Madras. Madras: Solden, 1965;
    Krishnaswamy, S. The Role of Madras Legislature in the Freedom Struggle, 1861–1947. New Delhi: Indian Council of Historical Research, 1989;
    Mukherjee, Nilmani, The Ryotwari System in Madras, 1792–1827. Calcutta: Firma K. C. Mukhopadhay, 1962;
    Ramaswami, N. S. The Founding of Madras. Madras: Orient Longman,1977.
   JITENDRA UTTAM

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • MADRAS — Une des principales villes de la république de l’Inde avec Bombay (Mumbai), Delhi et Calcutta, Madras comptait 3 841 000 habitants lors du recensement de 1991 (5 420 000 hab. pour l’agglomération). C’est à partir de Madras, troisième comptoir… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Madras — • Archdiocese in India Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Madras     Madras     † Catholic En …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • MADRAS — (today Chennai), city in S. India. Formerly known as Fort St. George, Madras was the first territorial acquisition of the English East India Company in 1639. In the last decades of the 17th century its diamond trade attracted Anglo Portuguese… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Madras [2] — Madras (offiziell: Presidency of Fort Saint George), Präsidentschaft des britisch ind. Kaiserreichs (s. Karte »Ostindien«), der südlichste Teil der vorderindischen Halbinsel, erstreckt sich vom Kap Komorin unter 8°4 nördl. Br. am Golf von… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Madras [3] — Madras, Hauptstadt der gleichnamigen britischindischen Präsidentschaft (s. oben), an der Koromandelküste unter 13°4 nördl. Br., drittgrößte Stadt des britisch indischen Kaiserreichs, im Sommer Europäern durch Cholera, Fieber und Dysenterie… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Madras — Madras, die Hauptstadt der engl. ostind. Compagnie auf der Koromandelküste, unter dem glücklichsten Himmelsstrich gelegen, die Hauptstation für den Handel zwischen England und Indien, der Sammelplatz aller der fleißigen Shawlarbeiter, Tuch und… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • madras — MADRÁS s.n. Ţesătură cu urzeală de mătase şi cu bătătură de bumbac. [< fr. madras, cf. Madras – oraş în India]. Trimis de LauraGellner, 22.05.2005. Sursa: DN  MÁDRAS s. n. ţesătură cu urzeală de mătase şi bătătură de bumbac. (< fr. madras) …   Dicționar Român

  • madras — ma*dras , n. [So named after Madras, a city and presidency of India.] 1. A large silk and cotton kerchief, usually of bright colors, such as those often used by negroes for turbans. A black woman in blue cotton gown, red and yellow madras turban …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Madras — Madras, 1) Präsidentschaft des Angloindischen Reichs, den Osten u. die Südspitze des Dekan umfassend, 6242 QM. ohne die einheimischen Schutzstaaten, mit letztern aber 8690 QM. groß, im Westen von den Westlichen Ghats, im Osten von den Östlichen… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Madras — Madras, OR U.S. city in Oregon Population (2000): 5078 Housing Units (2000): 1952 Land area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Madras, OR — U.S. city in Oregon Population (2000): 5078 Housing Units (2000): 1952 Land area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.