London, Treaty of
(1839)
   The final settlement of the dispute over Belgian independence from the Netherlands after the Belgian revolt against Dutch rule had established an independent monarchy in 1830. The Netherlands acknowledged Belgian sovereignty, and the River Scheldt was declared open to the commerce of both Belgium and the Netherlands. The treaty was a diplomatic triumph for the British foreign secretary, Lord Palmerston, who considered the independence of the smaller constitutional states of Europe a vital national interest of Great Britain. It was also a triumph for international cooperation insofar as Austria, Britain, France Prussia, and Russia collectively guaranteed the independence and perpetual neutrality of Belgium.
   See also <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Hayes, Carlton J. H. A Political and Social History of Europe. New York: Macmillam, 1926;
    Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics, 1763–1848. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.
   CARL CAVANAGH HODGE

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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