Abensberg, Battle of
(1809)
   A Napoleonic victory over Austrian Archduke Charles in Bavaria. The Austrians had seized the initiative in the opening stages of the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon quickly recovered. He sent Marshal Jean Lannes with a force of 25,000 men supported by two divisions under Marshal Louis Nicolas Davout, three divisions from Bavaria, and 12,000 troops from Württemberg to move against the Austrians. Davout and Marshal André Masséna were stationed on the wings to deliver the final blow.
   On April 20, the French forces split the Austrian forces while inflicting heavy causalities. Baron Johann Hiller withdrew toward Landshut, where he was pursued by Marshal Jean Lannes. Charles withdrew toward Eckmühl, where he outnumbered Davout’s forces, with Napoleon in pursuit. Thus, in addition to the Austrian losses of almost 7,000 counting prisoners, Napoleon managed to split the Austrian forces and regain the initiative in the campaign.
   See also <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Alexander, R. S. Napoleon. London: Arnold, 2001;
    Chandler, D. G. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Macmillan, 1996;
    Markham, J. David. Napoleons Road to Glory: Triumphs, Defeats, and Immortality. London: Brassey’s, 2003.
   J. DAVID MARKHAM

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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