Jihad


Jihad
   Meaning “On the path of God,” jihad is a Muslim doctrine of struggle against unbelievers for the protection or expansion of the realm of Islam. For a believer engaged in jihad sins are remitted, whereas death encountered on God’s path secures immediate admittance to paradise. The first jihad was led by the Prophet Muhammad in the seventh century and was integral to the unification of the Beduin tribes of the Arabian Peninsula into an Arab nation. In the nineteenth century, jihadist activity was usually defensive or insurgent in nature, such as in that of Janangir against the Qing Dynasty in Turkmenistan in 1821; the serial jihads of Abd-al-Qādir against French control of Algeria starting in the 1830s; and the Sudanese Mahdi of Dongola’s campaign against the British Empire climaxing in the capture of Khartoum and the collapse of William Gladstone ’s government in 1885.
   FURTHER READING:
    Johnson, James T., and John Kelsey. Cross, Crescent and Sword. New York: Greenwood, 1990;
    Peters, Rudolph. Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History. The Hague: Mouton, 1979.
   CARL CAVANAGH HODGE

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • JIHĀD — JIHĀD, struggle or striving, but often understood both within Muslim tradition and beyond it as warfare against infidels (Enc. of the Qur ān, S.V. Jihād); in other words, the Holy War. During the period of muhammad s stay in medina some of his… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Jihad (EP) — Jihad EP de OTEP Publicación Junio 19 del 2001 Grabación 2000 Género(s) Nu metal, rap metal, gothic metal Duración …   Wikipedia Español

  • jihad — jihád s. n. Trimis de siveco, 10.08.2004. Sursa: Dicţionar ortografic  JIHÁD s. n. (la musulmani) război sfânt. (< engl. jihad) Trimis de raduborza, 15.09.2007. Sursa: MDN …   Dicționar Român

  • Jihad — Nom de personne arabe qui correspond à jihâd (= effort). Avec le même sens : Jouhad, Jahad …   Noms de famille

  • Jihad — Ji*had , Jehad Je*had , n. [Ar. jih[=a]d.] (Moham.) A religious war against infidels or Mohammedan heretics; also, any bitter war or crusade for a principle or belief. [Their] courage in war . . . had not, like that of the Mohammedan dervishes of …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • jihad — (n.) 1869, from Arabic, usually translated as holy war, lit. struggle, contest, effort, from infinitive of jahada he waged war, he applied himself to. Used in English since c.1880 for any sort of doctrinal crusade …   Etymology dictionary

  • jihad — o gihad /ʒiˈad, ar. dʒiˈhæːd/ [vc. ar., propr. «lotta, combattimento»] s. m. o f. inv. guerra santa …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • jihad — meaning ‘a holy war undertaken by Muslims against unbelievers’, is pronounced jee hahd, and is preferably spelt this way rather than jehad …   Modern English usage

  • jihad — (also jehad) ► NOUN ▪ a holy war undertaken by Muslims against unbelievers. ORIGIN Arabic, effort …   English terms dictionary

  • jihad — [jē häd′] n. [Ar, a contest, war] 1. a war by Muslims against unbelievers or enemies of Islam, carried out as a religious duty 2. a fanatic campaign for or against an idea, etc.; crusade …   English World dictionary

  • Jihad — For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation) …   Wikipedia


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