Hungary


Hungary
   Hungary is a country of Eastern Europe that, following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, became part of the Ottoman Empire until its conquest by Austria in 1687, when the crown of Hungary fell to the Habsburgs. The Hungarian nobility strived to defend its political privileges, while modern nationalism resulted in a movement of cultural self-assertion and political reform that culminated in the revolution of 1848–1849 and Hungary’s unsuccessful attempt to break away from Habsburg rule. The Hungarian opposition finally negotiated the Ausgleich of 1867 with the Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph, which stipulated the restoration Hungary’s political autonomy within the framework of Austria-Hungary until 1918, when the Habsburg Empire collapsed. The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was a semi-autonomous part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Among Hungary’s leading politician in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were Count Gyula Andrássy, Ferenc Deák, Kálmán Tisza, and István Tisza.
   See also <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Sugar, P. F. A History of Hungary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
   GUENTHER KRONENBITTER

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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