Alexander III, Tsar of Russia
(1845–1894)
   In contrast to his father, Alexander II, Alexander III was a reactionary autocrat in domestic affairs yet instinctively cautious in his diplomacy. Recoiling from the assassination of his father, Alexander adhered to a policy of political repression throughout his reign, employing secret police against real and imagined enemies, intensifying the “Russification” of the subject nationalities of the Russian Empire, and allowing pogroms against Russia’s Jews. He had the utmost confidence in the judgment of Konstantin Pobedonostsev, his chief policy advisor and Procurator of the Holy Synod, and the competence of Vyacheslav von Plehve, his director of police and later minister of the interior. The Jews in particular suffered horribly under the “Temporary Rules” imposed in May 1882 and the increasingly violent waves of popular anti-Semitism that climaxed in the Kishinev Massacre of 1903. In the interim, Alexander issued a decree in 1890, according to which all Jews in the Russian interior were to migrate to the western provinces, where they were forbidden either to own or lease land or take up liberal professions. Meanwhile, genuine political enemies of the regime were forced to become more secretive and to form alliances of convenience across rival groups.
   Alexander sought to avoid international conflict. After 1890, he was so alarmed by the course of German foreign policy that he abandoned the tradition of the Dreikaiserbund and gravitated toward an understanding with France that in 1894 culminated secretly in the Franco-Russian Alliance only months before Alexander’s death. Alexander also promoted the development of the Russian Far East and authorized construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. His reign was therefore a period of expansion and diplomatic realignment abroad accompanied by repression and rising political tensions at home, which led, in the reign of his son Nicholas II, to the revolutionary upheavals of 1905.
   See also <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Geyer, Dietrich. Russian Imperialism: The Interaction of Domestic and Foreign Policy, 1860-1914. New York: Berg, 1987;
    Seton-Watson, Hugh. The Russian Empire, 1801-1917. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967;
    Whelan, Heide W. Alexander III & the State Council: Bureaucracy & Counter-reform in Late Imperial Russia. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1982.
   CARL CAVANAGH HODGE

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia — (1868–1918)    The last tsar of Russia, Nicholas II and his family were murdered by the Bolsheviks after the Russian Revolution of 1917. Born on May 6, 1868, Nicholas was the eldest son of Alexander III. He officially became heir to the throne in …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Alexander III of Russia — Alexander III Photograph by Sergey Levitsky Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias Reign 13 March 1881 – 1 November 1894 ( 100000 …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander III — 1. died 1181, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1159 81. 2. (Aleksandr Aleksandrovich) 1845 94, czar of Russia 1881 94. * * * I born Sept. 2, 1241 died March 18/19, 1286, near Kinghorn, Fife, Scot. King of Scotland (1249–86). Son of Alexander II, he… …   Universalium

  • Alexander III Equestrian (Fabergé egg) — The Alexander III Equestrian Egg is a jewelled Easter egg made under the supervision of the Russian jeweller Peter Carl Fabergé in 1910, for the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II. Tsar Nicholas presented the egg to the Dowager Empress, Maria… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander III — /æləgˈzændə/ (say aluhg zanduh), / zan / (say zahn ) noun 1. 1241–86, king of Scotland 1249–86. 2. (Russian, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich), 1845–94, tsar of Russia 1881–94 (son of Alexander II) …   Australian English dictionary

  • Alexander II of Russia — Alexander II Alexander II by Sergei Lvovich Levitsky 1870 (The Di Rocco Wieler Private Collection, Toronto, Canada) Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias Reign …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander I of Russia — Aleksandr I redirects here. It can also refer to Aleksandr I, Grand Prince of Tver. Alexander I Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias Reign 24 March 1801 – 1 December 1825 (& …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander III — noun son of Alexander II who was czar of Russia (1845 1894) • Syn: ↑Czar Alexander III • Regions: ↑Russia • Instance Hypernyms: ↑czar, ↑tsar, ↑tzar * * * 1. d …   Useful english dictionary

  • Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia — Alexei Nikolaevich Romanov Алексей Николаевич Романов Tsarevich of Russia Tsarevich Alexei as a lance corporal in the Russian Army, 1916 House House of Holstein Gottorp Romanov Father …   Wikipedia

  • Princess Irina Alexandrovna of Russia — Infobox Russian Royalty|princess name = Irina Alexandrovna title =Princess Irina Alexandrovna of Russia imgw = 180px caption = imperial house =House of Holstein Gottorp Romanov House of Yusupov (noble house) father =Grand Duke Alexander… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”