Giolitti, Giovanni


Giolitti, Giovanni
(1842–1928)
   Italian Premier in 1892–1893 and for most of the period from 1903 to 1915. At the beginning of the twentieth century, two factions dominated Italian politics. The first represented nondemocratic and authoritarian political and economic elites. The second was a parliamentary alliance of Mazzinians, Radicals, and independent Socialists who advocated more democratic government. In 1900, this “extreme left” defeated an attempt by the right to restrict constitutional law, and thereby ushered in a democratic government under Giuseppe Zanardelli, a longtime reformer. When health issues forced Zanardelli to retire, Giuseppe Giolitti returned to power. Giolitti was from Piedmont and entered public life shortly after national unifi-cation, holding various civil service positions. He believed that southern peasants and northern industrial workers could be entrusted with political choice but realized that both authoritarian conservatives and nondemocratic radicals threatened democratic government. In 1899, Giolitti announced a sweeping program of reforms, including respect for civil rights, administrative reorganization, a progressive tax, and free trade. To ensure that his reforms were passed, Giolitti practiced transforismo, that is, bringing men into government regardless of political ideology and ensuring their loyalty through political patronage. He played the various parliamentary factions against each other to divide opposition, undermining the Socialists, for example, by supporting Catholic and Nationalist parliamentarians. Giolotti was responsible for the annexation of Tripoli and led a successful imperialist war against Turkey in 1911–1912 in which Italy gained Libya, Rhodes, and Dodecanese, but his government was rampant with corruption and the costs of war high. When he pushed through universal male suffrage and social welfare programs, moreover, he alienated industrialists and Catholics, split the Socialist Party, thereby crippling it as a political force, and had few political allies left. Giolotti supported the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary but sought to keep Italy neutral at the outbreak of World War I.
   See also <>, <>
   FURTHER READINGS:
    Coppa, Frank J. “Economic and Ethical Liberalism in Conflict: The Extraordinary Liberalism of Giovanni Giolotti.” Journal of Modern History, 42 , 2, 1970: 191–215;
    Sprigge, Cecil. The Development of Modern Italy. New York: Fertig, 1969.
   FREDERICK H. DOTOLO

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Giolitti, Giovanni — born Oct. 22, 1842, Mondovì, Piedmont, Kingdom of Sardinia died July 17, 1928, Cavour, Italy Italian politician and prime minister five times between 1892 and 1921. He served in parliament (1882–1928). As a political leader, he used the technique …   Universalium

  • Giolitti, Giovanni — (1842–1928)    Giolitti’s legacy is much contested, but no one doubts that this statesman from Mondovi in Piedmont made a critical contribution to Italian history. Giolitti entered politics in 1882 after a brilliant career in the finance ministry …   Historical Dictionary of modern Italy

  • Giolitti, Giovanni — ► (1842 1928) Estadista y jurisconsulto italiano. Redujo el índice de desempleo y fomentó la ley de sufragio universal. * * * (22 oct. 1842, Mondovi, Piamonte, Reino de Cerdeña–17 jul. 1928, Cavour, Italia). Político italiano que fue primer… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Giolitti — Giolitti, Giovanni …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Giovanni Giolitti — (* 27. Oktober 1842 in Mondovì/Piemont; † 17. Juli 1928 in Cavour/Piemont) war ein italienischer Politiker und mehrfacher Ministerpräsident. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Giovanni — (as used in expressions) Giovanni Antonio Canal Giovanni da Bologna Tommaso Di Giovanni Di Simone Guidi Stefano di Giovanni Albinoni Tomaso Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Enrico Giuseppe Giovanni Boito Bononcini Giovanni Giovanni Caboto Casanova… …   Universalium

  • Giovanni — (as used in expressions) Albinoni, Tomaso (Giovanni) Boccaccio, Giovanni Enrico Giuseppe Giovanni Boito Bononcini, Giovanni Caboto, Giovanni Giovanni Antonio Canal Casanova, Giovanni Giacomo Giovanni Coralli Peracini Gabrieli, Andrea y Giovanni… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Giovanni Giolitti — Mandats 19e, 25e, 29e, 32e et 37e président du Conseil italien …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Giovanni Goria — Mandats 69e président du Conseil italien 28 juillet 1 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Giovanni Spadolini — Mandats 65e président du Conseil italien 28 juin 1981 – 1 …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.