Aix-la-Chapelle, Congress of
(1818)
   The first post-Vienna meeting of the Congress System that governed post-Napoleonic Europe. In 1818, the four Great Powers - Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia - met in the first of several meetings to uphold the Congress system, a means of discussing diplomatic problems at periodically held international conferences. The Congress enlarged the Quadruple Alliance to include France and ended the occupation of French territory two years earlier than originally agreed. The Congress discussed the question of French reparations owed by the terms of the second Treaty of Paris, the issue of Napoleon’s security on St. Helena, and reiterated the civil rights of German Jews as agreed at the Congress of Vienna three years before. Britain was the first nation to diverge from the united policies of the other powers by rejecting a call by Tsar Alexander II for an alliance pledged to guarantee the existing forms of government of the individual European states.
   FURTHER READING:
    Kissinger, Henry. A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh, and the Problem of Peace 1812-1822 . London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000;
    Lowe, John. The Concert of Europe: International Relations, 1814-70 . London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1991.
   GREGORY FREMONT-BARNES

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

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