Bosnia-Herzegovina
   A southeast European province of the Ottoman Empire from 1463 to 1878. Unusual for most Ottoman provinces on the Balkan Peninsula, Bosnia-Herzegovina was home to a large community of Slav Muslims, living alongside Catholic Croats and Orthodox Serbs. In 1878, after the Congress of Berlin, Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia-Herzegovina. Armed resistance against Habsburg rule was crushed by military force. Supervised by a special department within the common ministry of finance, the administration was run by Austro-Hungarian civil servants and officers. The annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908 caused an international crisis and outraged Serbian and Yugoslav nationalists who wanted to unite the province with Serbia. At least partly successful in modernizing the province, Austria-Hungary’s policy in Bosnia-Herzegovina failed to effectively counter Great Serbian or Yugoslav propaganda campaigns. One of the groups striving to free Bosnia-Herzegovina from Habsburg rule, Young Bosnia (Mlada Bosna), managed to assassinate Francis Ferdinand, the Austro-Hungarian heir apparent in the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo, on June 28, 1914. Austria-Hungary perceived this as a legitimate cause to wage war on Serbia that had harbored anti-Habsburg organizations.
   See also <>; <>.
   FURTHER READING:
    Malcom, Noel. Bosnia, A Short History. New York: New York University Press, 1994.
   GUENTHER KRONENBITTER

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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