Bonaparte, Louis
(1778–1846)
   Napoleon Bonaparte ’s third brother, Louis, served as an aide-de-camp to his more famous sibling during the 1796–1797 campaigns in Italy, where he was present at Arcola, Rivoli, and at the siege of Mantua. He served in the cavalry in 1799, became a brigadier general in 1803, and a general of division the next year. In September 1806, Louis was given command of all forces in Holland, and on September 24, 1806 he was crowned king of that country. In 1809, he led Dutch troops against the British landings on Walcheren Island. Friction arose between Louis and Napoleon over the latter’s Continental System, which was causing severe economic hardship for the Dutch, and which Louis refused to enforce. In July 1810, Louis abdicated and never held a senior position thereafter.
   FURTHER READING:
    Broers, Michael. Europe under Napoleon, 1799-1815. London: Arnold, 1996;
    Connelly, Owen. Napoleons Satellite Kingdoms. New York: Free Press, 1966.
   GREGORY FREMONT-BARNES

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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